Oil and gas exploration alternatively known as hydrocarbon explorations is the term that is used by the geologists as they look for oil and natural gas. This exploration process basically allows the oil and gas mining companies to harvest and harness natural gas and oils from the different parts of the earth. As a matter of fact, we must appreciate and acknowledge the fact that mining is an expensive process and as such the explorations for the hydrocarbons are often done to identify the probable areas with these deposits all the while minding what ways there are that the mining costs can be reduced as much as is possible and as well check on the effects that the explorations and mining may actually have on the environment. Let us see some of the exploration techniques that are available for use.
Hydrocarbon explorations. There are five rather basic factors that geologists must first strive to ascertain before they finally settle for a drill location or site. These are such as to ensure that there is a source rock, reservoir, migration, trap and seal or cap rock. Due to the fact that oil drilling and explorations are quite expensive and high in costs, there is a need to ensure that these factors are present before the actual drilling is undertaken. Once this is established, the geologists will then employ a variety of techniques so as to guarantee the success of the drilling. One of the first techniques that the geologists use is the geophysical survey also known as seismic survey. Seismic survey or geophysical survey often includes the measurement of heat flow, electrical currents, density variations, gravitational and magnetic irregularities and geochemical reactions. Geophysical or seismic survey is one of the techniques for oil exploration that happens to be so popularly used by most geologists in their attempt to determine the existence of oil and gas that exist particularly in deep water surveillance. It uses sounds to establish the level of the rock formations under the waters. Many of the companies use the vibrator trucks or small explosive charges on land and the sounds are recorded using a geophone.
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The other technique used by the geologists in oil and gas explorations is that known to make use of the offshore surveys which make use of the compressed air to create large bubbles which will always burst upon reaching the surface area. The bursting sound waves will travel below and reach the rocks under and the vibrations will be recorded using a hydrophone.
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